Geography of Ganjam

Ganjam is bestowed with abundance of natural resources that has made it one of the geographically rich regions of Odisha state. Rivers, lakes, soils, minerals, flora etc – everything here is found in absolute abundance. It is located in coastal region of Odisha state and at elevation of 3 metres (9 feet). Geographically the region is surrounded on the North by Khurda district, on the East by the Bay of Bengal, on the West by Khandhamal and Gajapati district and on the South by Andhra Pradesh state. In terms of Latitude and Longitude, It is located between 19.38° North Latitude and 85.07° East Longitude.

Topography and Climate of Ganjam

Ganjam’s land area can be broadly divided into coastal plain located in eastern side and hills and table lands located in western side of the district. Coastal area mainly constitutes of delta regions created mostly by River Rushikulya. Chilika Lake that passes through Ganjam District also forms important part of the coastal area. As far as hills and table land areas are concerned, then it mainly constitutes of Eastern Ghats that mainly runs through many eastern and southern Indian states. Eastern Ghats is known for its flora and rich deposit of minerals and its presence has been nothing short of blessing for Ganjam.
Geography of Ganjam

Since Ganjam has huge coastal area, its climate is characterized by equable temperature. As in temperature is pretty much same throughout the year. In case of Ganjam it is more on humid side. March to May are hottest while December to February are coldest months.

Soil Texture of Ganjam

Soils are predominately alluvial, black laterite, red and saline. Amongst these alluvial and black laterite soils constitute highest percentage. Alluvial soil is predominantly found near coastal region (eastern part), while black laterite soil is mostly found in western part. These soils are known for making land immensely fertile and hence have helped Ganjam in yielding high agricultural production. Ganjam with huge reservoirs of minerals is one of the prosperous regions of Odisha. This is exactly why today district is home to many mineral extraction companies. Indian Rare Earth Ltd – one of the major mineral extraction companies – also has a plant here. As for which all minerals are located, then here is the list: Mineral Sand, Rutile, Garnet, Limenite, Sillimanite, Monazite and Zircon.

Rivers and Vegetation in Ganjam

Many important rivers of Odisha like Rushikulya, Jahada, Badanadi, Dhanei and Baghua rivers pass through the region. Amongst all these Rushikulya River is the biggest and most prominent one. Forest does have sizeable presence in Ganjam district. As per rough estimate forest area covers nearly 52000 hectares in the district. With such sizeable presence, many natural and forest related products like Bamboo, Timber, Mohua, Tamarind, Myrabanna, Sal, Resin, Kendu leaves etc are easily found here. These products are economically exploited and hence contribute tremendously to district’s economic revenue.


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